|Keywords||bioreactor landfill, municipal solid waste, moisture, temperature, air injection, leachate recirculation|
|Abstract||Bioreactor landfill technology is currently under active evaluation in the United States by both landfill operators and regulatory agencies to set up guidelines for its full-scale design and operation. This alternative to traditional landfilling offers many environmental and financial benefits including accelerated stabilization of the waste which reduces the long-term potential for groundwater contamination and should allow for shorter post-closure care periods, accelerated methane production which makes recovery more cost-effective, more rapid settlement which creates additional volume for waste disposal during the useful operating life of the site. A 0.49 hectare bioreactor landfill cell was constructed at the Northern Oaks Recycle and Disposal Facility (NORDF) in Harrison, Michigan, USA for the purpose of collecting scientific data to guide in the design and operation of full-scale systems located in low temperature environments. This cell was filled with 100,000 cubic meters of municipal solid waste (MSW) and closed with a geosynthetic membrane. Horizontal leachate injection and gas extraction lines were placed in each of the six 3-meter lifts. Design of this full-scale research cell included a network of forty-eight temperature and moisture sensors, leachate collection basins, and gas sampling ports, which provided for continuous temperature and moisture data and periodic measurements of both the quantity and composition of the leachate and gas produced. An on-site weather station provided for continuous monitoring of air temperature and precipitation necessary to evaluate the role of climatic conditions and to support a full water balance on the system. Leachate generated from this and other cells at NORDF was injected into the bioreactor through a leachate distribution system. The upper lifts of the landfill were filled during winter months and the MSW within these lifts was initially below the freezing point. The initial monitoring data indicated that methane generation started approximately three months after filling in the lift that was placed during summer, but little or no methane generation occurred in other lifts. Temperature data indicated that near-zero ?C temperatures persisted within the lifts filled during winter for more than six months. It was apparent that biological activity was severely limited during this period. In order to increase temperatures, air was injected into one lift. After three weeks of air injection, the average temperature increase was approximately 10 ?C. Following this experiment, we implemented a strategy of injecting air through different lines within the cell for 2 to 3 week periods in order to achieve a more uniform distribution of oxygen and elevated temperatures. This resulted in a substantial increase in methane production from the cell. These results demonstrate that bioreactor technology is feasible in cold climates, and that the temperature limitations to methane production can be addressed through air injection.|
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|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Hashsham S||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 USA||2|
|Musleh R||Solid Waste Management Program, German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Al Bireh, OPT. Via- GTZ, P.O. Box 38383, East Jerusalem 91383||4|
|Voice TV||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 USAemail@example.com||1|
|Zhao X||Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University||3|
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