|Keywords||Pharmaceutical compounds, Solid Phase Extraction, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry, aquatic system of Kalamas River|
|Abstract||Pharmaceutical compounds in the environment lately have been acknowledged to constitute a health risk for humans, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments typically results from human excretion of metabolized and unmetabolized drug passing into sewage or septic systems and subsequent discharge of wastewater and percolation of septic-system leachate into surface water or ground water. Animal waste in pasturage or confined animal-feeding operations is another potential source of pharmaceuticals. Direct discharge to ground from excretion by livestock can contaminate surface water, or collection of waste in lagoons can infiltrate to ground water. Due to their pharmacological activity they are of great environmental concern and the concentrations, and the fate and behavior (e.g.,transport and degradation processes) of these chemicals in natural waters must be known and quantified. To quantitatively evaluate the fate of these chemicals for a proper risk assessment and to monitor the drinking water quality, a trace analytical method at the low-ng/ l level with high precision is a pre-requisite. In this study, the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds was investigated in the aquatic system of Kalamas River which receives wastewater from the municipal STP of Ioannina city. The compounds investigated include frequently used pharmaceuticals belonging to various therapeutic categories, i.e., the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, NSAID’s drugs salycilic acid, ibuprofen, paracetamol, naproxen and diclofenac, the antihyperlipidemics clofibrate and gemfibrozil, the sychomotor stimulant caffeine, the anti-epileptical carbamazepine, the lipid lowering agents fenofibrate and bezafibrate, the analgesic/antipyretic phenazone and the disinfectant triclosan. The analytical method involves the concentration of water samples using solid-phase extraction sorbents and analyzed by GC–MS.|
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|Included Refrences||8 References (List...)|
|Cited by other Articles||0 Citations (List...)|
|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Albanis TA||Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Research Unit of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110, Greecefirstname.lastname@example.org||72|
|Kosma CI||Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greeceemail@example.com||4|
|Lambropoulou DA||Department of Chemistry, University of Ioanninafirstname.lastname@example.org||26|
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References included in article:
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