|Keywords||organotins, TBT, bivalves, mussels, Aegean Sea|
|Abstract||The extensive use of organotin compounds (OTs) in various applications and their toxic effects are widely known. More specifically, their use in antifouling paints as biocides (mainly as TBT and TPhT) has serious toxic actions in non - target organisms causing them lethal and sublethal effects. Despite the ban of using OTs in antifouling paints, various researchers worldwide have shown that the concentrations of OTs in marine water, sediments and organisms remain considerably high. Bivalves constitute a reliable environmental indicator for the occurrence of OTs in the marine environment. These molluscs bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate OTs and give important information for their entry in the food chain. This research was focused on the determination of OTs (TBT, DBT, MBT, TPhT, DPhT, MPhT) in bivalves of the Aegean Sea, Greece, in order to investigate the environmental levels of OTs in the marine ecosystems and the marine organisms. The following bivalves were analyzed: Mytilus galloprovinciallis (Mediterranean mussels, n=19), Venus gallina (stripped venus, n=8), Modiola barbatus L. (bearded horse mussels, n=6), Pecten jacobeus (scallops, n=3) and Callista chione (hard clam, n=1). Sampling was performed from August 2001 to January 2003 at seven sampling sites: Thermaikos gulf, Pieria, Chalkidiki, Lesvos island, Lemnos island and Saronikos gulf. The samples were extracted with acidic methanol and analyzed with GC-FPD after derivatization with NaBEt4. The quantification was performed using the standard additions method, using tripropyltin as internal standard and the method was validated with the certified reference material, BCR 477 (mussel tissue). The limits of detection were ranged from 4 (MBT) to 10 ng g–1 (TPhT), respectively. The range of concentrations found in the bivalves were <4-109 ng g–1 for TBT, with a geometric mean 17.1 ng g–1, <10-366 ng g–1 for DBT with a geometric mean 18.8 ng g–1, <6-151 ng g–1 for MBT with a geometric mean 11 ng g–1 and <10-201 ng g–1 for TPhT with a geometric mean 14.4 ng g–1. DPhT and MPhT were not detected in any sample. The concentrations found are in the same or lower levels with the concentrations that have been reported for bivalves worldwide.|
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|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Nikolaou AD||Department of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene, Greeceemail@example.com||44|
|Pappas K||Department of Cardiology, University of Ioannina, Medical School, Ioannina, Greece||2|
|Stasinakis AS||Department of Environment, University of Aegean, Mytilini 81100, Greecefirstname.lastname@example.org||16|
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