|Keywords||Microwave-assisted extraction, NP, NPEO, sewage sludge|
|Abstract||Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs) constitute a significant portion of the non-ionic surfactant market. The presence of nonylphenol (NP) in the aquatic environment is often a product of the microbial breakdown of NPEOs through discharge of industrial effluents and sewage treatment plants. The toxic effect of NPEO metabolites has been attributed to the ability of these compounds to mimic natural hormones (estrogens) inducing endocrine disruption of aquatic organisms. Since NPEOs and their metabolites are discharged in the environment directly or indirectly, through the wastewater treatment plant effluents, they have been detected in sediments, soils and aquatic organisms, raising a significant concern about the long-term impact of these compounds on human health. The aim of this work is to study the presence of the NPEO and NP in sewage treatment plants in Greece. Samples were collected from three different cities: Athens, Patras and Heraklion. Especially in the STPs of Patras, a study of the daily and weekly variation had been occurred. For the analysis of NP/NPEO a method based on the Microwave Assisted Extraction of the sewage sample followed by HPLC coupled with fluorescent detector was used. A SPE (solid phase extraction) method was used for clean-up and pre-concentration of extracts, when this was needed The contamination levels of NPEO and NP ranged from 12.8 - 233.5 mg/kg and 3.6 - 93 mg/kg, in mixtures of primary and secondary sludge respectively, while they were significantly lower in the secondary sludge samples (less than 0.1 mg/kg). A significant decrease in the concentrations was observed during aerobic treatment; the concentration of NP was reduced from 476 mg/kg TS (corresponded to 440 μg/l) to 1.28 mg/kg TS, while the concentration of NPEO was reduced from 61.5 mg/kg TS (corresponding to 60 μg/l) to 2.7 mg/kg TS, leading to an almost 100 % removal of these compounds in the concentrated secondary sludge. This is in agreement with previous studies, where it was reported that both NP and NPEO are degraded under aerobic conditions. Furthermore diurnal variations were observed for NP and NPEO with lower levels in the morning.|
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|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Fountoulakis M||School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Estavromenos, Heraklion, Greece||3|
|Lyberatos G||Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patrasemail@example.com||31|
|Stamatelatou K||Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras||11|
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