|Abstract||We chose two species of Parus that are intensively studied throughout Europe, especially for their breeding biology. The way they interact with the environment was unanimous and the findings have a wide application in fields of Ecology and classification groups of Biology. This view changes on account of some works that imply that these birds have a different relation with their environment. The objective of this thesis, apart from the description of the specific system, is to verify or reject the prevailing views on the relationship of those species with the environment. By conducting filed work we managed to determine the most important parameters of breeding from the beginning of egg laying to the day the nestling leave the nest. We studied the beginning of breeding season and discovered that both species begin their breeding simultaneously. When the breeding season is long the Great Tits have second broods. The breeding season starts earlier than in other parts of Europe due to early temperature raise (possibly through effect in food availability). The number of eggs they lay is smaller than we have expected according to the results we have so far from other studies throughout Europe. It reduces gradually for both species as season advances (the reduction is greater for the Great Tit) and at the second breeding attempt as well. Besides the negative effect of the season on the number of eggs they lay, it also negatively affects the number of nestlings that leave the nest successfully. Their final weight shows their chances of further survival (the heavier weight the better the chance). Our data show that nestlings, from the first breeding attempts, leave the nest having a lower weight in comparison with the second ones, maybe because they need it more at that time. Furthermore we studied the increase of body mass of the Great Tits throughout their stay in nest. From the body mass curves we discovered that the last hatched nestling has the smallest increase rate and less chances of survival than the rest of the siblings, due to competition owed to asynchronous hatching. The increase rate is greater in the first than in the second breeding attempt, none the less the nestlings of the second broods have greater body mass than those of the first. The number of eggs they lay is big and the breeding success is similar to those of other areas, so it seems that we observe the greatest breeding rate in Europe. Our results show that if we had tried to predict the breeding in the specific ecosystem we would have had significant divergence. Especially in the case of the Great Tits we would expect: • much less eggs • much less number of nestlings leaving the nest In other words we would expect a smaller reproductive rate than the one observed. Thus the “habitat” and the prevailing “conditions” are the best for the Great Tits breeding in Europe.|
|Full text||Full Text in PDF (1947 KB)
|Included Refrences||204 References (List...)|
|Cited by other Articles||0 Citations (List...)|
|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Theofanellis TN||Πανεπιστήμιο Αιγαίου Σχολή Κοινωνικών ΕπιστημώνΤμήμα Περιβάλλοντοςfirstname.lastname@example.org||2|
Article is cited by:
References included in article:
|Order of appearence||Full citation||SRCosmos Link|
|1||Akriotis T, |
(1987). Breeding biology of reed and great warblers. Ph.D. thesis. Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford.
|2||Allaby M, |
(1998). Dictionary of Ecology. Oxford University Press, second edition, Oxford.
|3||Allander K, |
(1997). Reproductive investment and parasite susceptibility in the great tit. Functional Ecology 11(3): 358 – 364.
|4||Amundsen T, Slagsvold T, |
(1998). Hatching asynchrony in great tits: a bet-hedging strategy? Ecology 79(1): 295-304.
|5||Amundsen T, Slagsvold T, |
(1991). Asynchronous hatching in the pied fly catcher – an experiment. Ecology 72(3): 797 – 804.
|6||Arteaga L, Marin M, Monros JS, Barba E, |
(2001). Changing quantity or quality? Responses of parents to varying nestling food demand. The avian calendar: exploring biological hurdles in the annual cycle. Third conference of the European Ornithologists’ Union. Haren/Groningen, Netherlands.
|7||Austin GE, Houston DC, |
(1997). The breeding performance of the buzzard buteo buteo in Argyll, Scotland and a comparison with other areas in Britain. Bird Study 44(2): 146-154.
|8||Baldi A, Csorgo T, |
(1994). Influence of age and dominance status of male and female great tits on laying date, clutch size and egg dimensions. Acta Zoologica Hungarica 40: 99 – 107.
|9||Balen-Van JH, |
(1973). A comparative study of the breeding ecology of the great tit
|10||Parus major in different habitats. Ardea 61: 1 –95.|
|11||Balen van, J.H. , Potting P.J. (1990). Comparative reproductive biology of four blue tits populations in the Netherlands, p. 19-38. In J. Blondel , A. Gosler, J.D. Lebreton & R. McCleery (eds). Population biology of passerine birds: an integrated approach. Springer Verlag, Berlin.|
|12||Barba E, Garcia DM, Gi-Delgado JA, Lopez GM, |
(1994). Moth abundance and breeding success in the great tit population where moths are the main nestling food. Ardea 82: 329 –334.
|13||Barba E, Gil-Delgado JA, Monros JS, |
(1995). The costs of being late: consequences of delaying great tit Parus major first clutches. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 642 – 651. 135
|14||Barba E, Monros JS, Gil-Delgado JA, Delgado JA, |
(1999). Long-term costs of late breeding in great tits: an experimental study. International conference on “Results and perspectives of bird ringing” by the European Union for Bird Ringing in Helgoland, Germany.
|15||Beagon M, Harper C, Townsend C, |
(1996) Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
|16||Belda EJ, Barba E, Gil-Delgado JA, Iglesias DJ, Lopez GM, Monros JS, |
(1998). Laying date and clutch size of great tits Parus major in the Mediterranean region: a comparison of four habitat types. Journal fur Ornithologie 139: 269 – 276.
|17||Belda EJ, Monros JS, Barba E, |
(2001). Survival rates of great tits in two eastern Spanish populations. International conference on “Results and perspectives of bird ringing” by the European Union for Bird Ringing in Helgoland, Germany.
|18||Berezantseva M, |
(2001). Parameters of trophic niches of the two hole-nesting species in the nature reserve in the Central Russia. Third conference of the European Ornithologists’ Union. Haren/Groningen, Netherlands.
|19||Berg A, |
(1997). Diversity and abundance of birds in relation to forest fragmentation, habitat quality and heterogeneity. Bird Study 44: 355 – 366
|20||Bergmann F, |
(1999). Long-term increase in numbers of early-fledged Reed Warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) at lake Constance (Sothern Germany). Journal fur Ornithologie 140(1): 81 – 86.
|21||Blomqvist D, Wallander J, Andersson M, |
(2001). Successive clutches and parental roles in waders: the importance of timing in multiple clutch systems. Biological Journal of the Linnean society 74(4): 549 – 555.
|22||Blondel J, |
(1985). Breeding strategies of the blue tit and coal tit (Parus) in mainland and island Mediterranean habitats: a comparison. Journal of Animal Ecology 54: 531 –556.
|23||Blondel J, |
(2000). Evolution and ecology of birds on islands: Trends and prospects. Vie et Milieu - Life and environment 50(4): 205 – 220.
|24||Blondel J, Aronson J, |
(1999). Biology and wildlife of the Mediterranean region. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
|25||Blondel J, Clamens A, Cramm P, Gaubert H, Isenmann P, |
(1987). Population studies on the tits in the Mediterranean region. Ardea 75: 21 –34.
|26||Blondel J, Dervieux A, Maistre M, Perret P, |
(1991). Feeding ecology and lifehistory variation of the blue tit in Mediterranean deciduous and sclerophyllous habitats. Oecologia 88: 9 – 14. 136
|27||Blondel J, Maistre M, Perret P, Hurtrez-Bousses S, Lambrechts MM, |
(1998). Is the small clutch size of Corsican blue tit population optimal? Oecologia 117: 80 89.
|28||Blondel J, Perret P, Dias PC, Lambrechts MM, |
(2001). Is phenotypic variation of blue tits Parus caeruleus L. in Mediterranean mainland and insular landscapes adaptive? Genetics selection evolution (suppl) 33: 121 – 139.
|29||Blondel J, Perret P, Galan MJ, |
(2000). High divorce rates in Corsican blue tits: how to choose a better option in a harsh environment. Oikos 89: 451 – 460.
|30||Blondel J, Perret PM, |
Maistre . Dias P.C (1992). Do harlequin Mediterranean environments function as source sink for blue tits Parus caerruleus L. Landscape Ecology 6(3): 213 – 219.
|31||Blondel J, Pradel R, |
(1990). Is adult survival of the blue tit higher in a low fecundity insular population than in a high fecundity mainland one? In: “Population biology of passerine birds, an integrated approach” Blondel, J., Gosler, A., Lebreton, J.-D. & R. McCleery (ed) Springer-Verlag Berlin.pp. 131 – 135.
|32||Bojarinova J, Markovets M, |
(2001). Late hatched great tits: how do they contribute to the next year breeding population? The avian calendar: exploring biological hurdles in the annual cycle. Third conference of the European Ornithologists’ Union. Haren/Groningen, Netherlands.
|33||Bojarinova J, Rymkevich T, |
(2001). Summer and autumn life-time schedules of first year great tits with different hatching dates in northern Europe. The avian calendar: exploring biological hurdles in the annual cycle. Third conference of the European Ornithologists’ Union. Haren/Groningen, Netherlands.
|34||Both C, |
(1998). Density dependence of clutch size: habitat heterogeneity or individual adjustment? Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 659 – 666.
|35||Bradbury BB, Wilson DW, Moorcroft D, Morris AJ, Perkins AJ, |
(υπό ετοιµασία). A comparison of environmental correlatives of nestling condition and growth rate in four farmland passerines.
|36||Brazaitis G, |
(2001). Distribution of birds in relation to plot cuttings in mature deciduous forest. The avian calendar: exploring biological hurdles in the annual cycle. Third conference of the European Ornithologists’ Union. Haren/Groningen, Netherlands.
|37||Brook M, Birkhead T, |
(editors) (1991). The Cambridge encyclopedia of Ornithology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
|38||Catalan RM, Haeger JF, |
(1996). Breeding patterns of the great tit Parus major in a pine plantation and holm oak forest in a Mediterranean region (southern Spain). Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51: 341 – 357.
|39||Chabi Y, Isenmann P, |
(1997). La reproduction de la mesange bleue Parus caeruleus ultramarinus dans des suberaies Quercus suber a trois defferentes altitudes en Algerie. Alauda 65: 13 – 18.
|40||Christians JK, |
(2002). Avian egg size: variation within species and inflexibility within individuals. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 77: 1 – 26.
|41||Cichon M, Linden M, |
(1995). The timing of breeding and offspring size in great tits Parus major. Ibis 137: 364 – 370.
|42||Clarck JS, Carpenter SR, Barber M, Collins S, Dobson A, Foley JA, Lodge DM, Pascual M, Pielke R, Pizer W, Pringle C, Reid WV, Rose KA, Sala O, Schlesinger WH, Wall DH, Wear D, |
(2001). Ecological forecasts: an emerging imperative. Science 293: 657 – 660
|44||Cook MI, Hamer KC, |
(1997). Effects of supplementary feeding on provisioning and growth rates of nestling puffins Fratercula arctica: evidence for regulation of growth. Journal of Avian Biology 28: 56 –62.
|45||Cowie RJ, Hinsley SA, |
(1987). Breeding success of blue tits and great tits in suburban gardens. Ardea 75: 81 – 90.
|46||Cramp S, Perrins CM, |
(editors) (1993). The birds of western palearctic. Vol VII. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
|47||Crick HPQ, Gibbons DW, Magrath RD, |
(1993). Seasonal-changes in clutch size in British birds. Journal of Animal Ecology 62: 263 – 273.
|48||Dervieux A, Isenmann P, Clamens A, Cramm P, |
(1990). Breeding time and breeding performance of the blue tit Parus caeruleus in two Mediterranean habitats In: “Population biology of passerine birds, an integrated approach”
|49||Blondel J, Gosler A, Lebreton JD, Mccleery R, |
(ed) Springer-Verlag Berlin. pp. 77 – 87.
|50||Dhondt AA, |
(1999). Studies on life histories of tits. International conference on “Results and perspectives of bird ringing” by the European Union for Bird Ringing in Helgoland, Germany.
|51||Dhondt AA, Adriaensen F, |
(1999). Experiments on competition between great and blue tit: Effects on blue tit reproductive success and population processes. Ostrich 70(1): 39 – 48.
|52||Dhondt AA, Eyckerman R, Moermans R, Huble J, |
(1984). Habitat and laying date of great and blue tit Parus major an P. caeruleus. Ibis 126: 388 – 397.