|Keywords||water resources management, wastewater reuse, Lesvos Island|
|Abstract||The island of Lesvos – Greece was a study area for the preparation of a pilot "Water Supply Master Plan" decided by the Ministry of Environment, Planning and Public Works”. From the management simulation, that took place after the determination of future needs, resulted that a significant deterioration of water deficits in a horizon of 40 years is expected, particularly in the municipality of Mytilene, which consumes about half the water sources of the island. Even if measures are taken to reduce network losses and water consumption the deficit is expected to be twice the current one for all municipalities and three times for the municipality of Mytilene by 2048. In order to cover the expected water deficits the following specific steps were suggested: ¦ To promote the basic measures for conservation and rational use of water. ¦ To build the reservoir in Tsiknias in the predicted from the existing studies, position and size, with a priority on serving the needs of drinking water and secondary irrigation. At the same time to revise and supplement the technical and environmental studies in order to ensure the desired conditions for the wetland protection of the bay of Kalloni. The construction project will not remove the existing sources of water supply, instead it will complement them. ¦ To build the reservoir of Polihnitos in order to serve the needs of drinking water and irrigation, along with the related water transport projects. The work can be connected with Tsiknias aqueduct in a technically effective way. ¦ To study and construct smaller dams and reservoirs in areas that cannot be served by the projects Tsiknias and Polihnitos. Also, the construction of water transport is proposed. The reuse of treated wastewater should be considered in the Water Resources Management Studies. In Lesvos there are six wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in operation today while by 2020 36 WWTPs are planned to operate on the island. Of these, 26 plants provide secondary treatment and disinfection of water, as presented in the corresponding studies of environmental terms. Therefore, their effluents can be used to irrigate crops. In this way, a significant amount of water saving is achieved estimated to about 3.5x106 m3 annually. The amount of fertilizer saved is also important since the treated water of all WWTPs contains nitrogen, the concentration of which is within the limits of the relevant legislation, but it still remains high, reducing this way the use of fertilizers. In the same way enrichment of the soil in phosphorus is also achieved as the effluent of the WWTPs contains phosphorus. Similarly the reduction in fertilizer phosphorus that occurs by the use of treated wastewater in these areas is calculated. From the above it becomes clear that the parallel use of the treated wastewater in those areas that are going to be served by the reservoir of Tsiknias contributes to both the reinforcing the reserves of underground aquifers and the reduce of the reservoir volume.|
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|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Nikolakopoulos GN||Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100, Greece||1|
|Paraskevas PA||Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegeanfirstname.lastname@example.org||10|
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References included in article:
|Order of appearence||Full citation||SRCosmos Link|
|1||Broadbent FE, Reisenauer HM, |
(1985), “Fate of wastewater constituents in soil and groundwater: Nitrogen and phosphorus” In: Irrigation with Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater - A guidance manual. 2nd Edition, Chelsea, MI.
|2||CMD Φ16/663/1989, “Determination of the lower and upper limits of the necessary water quantities for the rational use of irrigation water” June 1989 (in Greek).|
|3||Directive 2000/60/EU, Water Framework Directive.|
|4||Directive 91/271/EEC, Urban waste water treatment.|
|5||Nikolakopoulos G, |
(2009), “Wastewater reuse in the management of water resources of Lesvos Island”, Degree Thesis, “Theofrasteio postgraduate course Environmental and Ecological Engineering, University of the Aegean, (in Greek).
|6||Paraskevas PA, Giokas DL, Kolokythas G, Haralambopoulos D, Stathelli A, |
(2001), “Wastewater management in the island of Lesvos, Greece”, “Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology”, Ermoupolis, Syros island, Greece, Sept. 2001, Vol. C, pp. 396 – 402.
|7||World Health Organization (WHO), (1989). “Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture”, Report of a WHO Scientific Group WHO Technical Report Series 778, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.|
|8||YPEXODE (Ministry of the Environment, Planning and Public Works), General Secrecy of Public Works (2008), “Specific Managerial Study of Water Resources in Lesvos Island”, Athens|