|Keywords||Athens drinking water quality, drinking water treatment, THMs, HAAs, DOC, GAC, adsorption, GAC filter-adsorber, GAC postfilter-adsorber|
|Abstract||Athens drinking water comes mainly from Mornos and Evinos reservoirs, secondarily from Marathon reservoir and Yliki lake and in case of emergency from ground water. Raw water from the four reservoirs is transferred through the aqueducts to four Water Treatment Plants: Galatsi WTP, Acharnai WTP, Polydendri WTP and Aspropyrgos WTP. The total water treatment capacity of the WTPs is 1,840,000 m3/d. The quality of raw water from the three reservoirs is very good, since it contains low organics, extremely low heavy metals, while SOCs (Synthetic Organic Chemicals) and toxins usually below detection limits. The water from the natural lake of Yliki, though, has higher organic content. However, the feed water to each WTP is mainly from Evinos and Mornos reservoirs with mean DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) on annual basis 1.5 mg/L within the range of 1.0-2.7 mg/L. Conventional water treatment is applied in the four WTPs, including prechlorination, aluminum sulphate coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, rapid gravity sand filtration and postchlorination. The quality of water is continuously monitored through all stages of treatment.The finished water meets the existing sanitary regulations in EEC countries. The water of Athens is of best quality and one of the best in Europe, a fact which is due to the mountainous character of the watersheds of the feeding reservoirs. However, low concentrations of chlorination-by products, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) are usually measured in finished water. They are higher when feed water comes from Yliki, but still far below the maximum allowable limits. For the study of the removal of THMs, HAAs and DOC from chlorinated drinking water a GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) pilot plant was operated until breakthrough as a rapid gravity filter-adsorber and as a postfilter-adsorber in Galatsi WTP. The results of the pilot study showed that the efficiency of GAC for the removal of THMs, HAAs and DOC was significant. The GAC breakthrough capacity for DOC was higher than the capacity for total-HAAs, which was higher than that for total-THMs, for both GAC adsorbers, as expected. The removal of THMs and of most part of HAAs and DOC should be attributed to adsorption by GAC, while that of a smaller part of HAAs and DOC may be attributed to biodegradation. In addition, the GAC postfilter-adsorber had a significantly higher breakthrough capacity for all groups than the filter-adsorber, mainly due to the smaller carbon particle size and the lower hydraulic loading rate. The removal of turbidity from water by the GAC filter-adsorber was similar or better than that by the sand filter. For the further improvement of Athens drinking water quality, the experimental operation of a full-scale GAC filter-adsorber has been scheduled for Polydendri WTP.|
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|Included Refrences||22 References (List...)|
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|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Babi KG||Department of Environmental Studies, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81100, Greecefirstname.lastname@example.org||16|
|Dimitrou C||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Farmaki H||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Kagiara A||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Kaloudis T||Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA) Water Quality Control and Protection Division, Organic Pollutants Laboratory, 19014 Polydendri Attikis, Greeceemail@example.com||4|
|Koronakis D||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Lekkas TD||University of the Aegean, Dept. of Environmental Studies||http://firstname.lastname@example.org||71|
|Melabianaki Z||Department of Water Quality Control, Water Supply and Sewrage Company of Athens||2|
|Miskaki PT||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Psaroudi M||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Samios S||Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company, Water Quality Control Department, 156 Oropou st., Galatsi, Athens, Greece.||email@example.com||7|
|Tarnara E||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Thanasoulias NC||Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA) Water Quality Control and Protection Division, Organic Pollutants Laboratory, 19014 Polydendri Attikis, Greecefirstname.lastname@example.org||3|
|Tsakou A||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||1|
|Tsorova D||EYDAP S.A., 156 Oropou str., 111 46 Galatsi, Athens, Greece||3|
|Vassilantonopoulou G||Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP), 156 Oropou str., Galatsi, Athens 10141, Greece||2|
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