|Abstract||Background: Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may interfere with reproductive function but direct evidence in humans is very limited. Methods: Fertility was examined in four regions with contrasting blood levels of POPs. Pregnant women and their partners in Warsaw (Poland), Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Greenland were consecutively enrolled during antenatal visits. Swedish fishermen and their spouses were recruited separately and independently of current pregnancy. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE) were available for both partners. Time to pregnancy interviews were obtained among 2269 women and 798 men provided a semen sample. Results: Inuits had high levels of both POP markers, Swedish fishermen were high in CB-153 but low in DDE, men from Kharkiv were high in DDE and low in CB-153 while men from Warsaw were low in CB-153 and had intermediate DDE levels. Compared to Warsaw couples, fecundability was reduced among couples from Kharkiv [adjusted fecundability ratio (FR) 0.64 (95% CI 0.5–0.8)] and elevated in Swedish fishermen families [FR 1.26 (95% CI 1.0–1.6)]. Adjusted geometric means of sperm counts and morphology did not differ between regions while sperm motility was higher in men living in Warsaw. Conclusion: We observed regional differences in time to pregnancy and sperm motility that may be related to regional differences in POP blood levels, but other interpretations are also plausible. In particular, differences in access to safe contraception and in the prevalence of contraceptive failures are most likely to bias comparisons of time to pregnancy.|
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|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Axmon A||Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, SE – 22185 Lund, Sweden||Anna.Axmon@med.lu.se||4|
|Bonde JP||Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, build. 2C, DK – 8000 Aarhus C, Denmarkemail@example.com||11|
|Bonefeld-Jorgensen EC||Unit of Environmental Biotechnology, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Build. 260, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmarkfirstname.lastname@example.org||8|
|Giwercman A||Scanian Andrology Centre, Fertility Centre, Malmo University Hospital, SE – 205 02 Malmo, Swedenemail@example.com||5|
|Hagmar L||Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, SE – 22185 Lund, Swedenfirstname.lastname@example.org||7|
|Inuendo||Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, build. 2C, DK – 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark||2|
|Ludwicki JK||Department of Environmental Toxicology, National Institute of Hygiene, Chocimska 24, PL – 00-791 Warsaw, Poland||4|
|Manicardi GC||Laboratory di Genetica, Dip. di Science Agrarie, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Viale Kennedy 17, I – 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy||2|
|Pedersen HS||The Primary Health Care Clinic, P.O. Box 1001, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenlandemail@example.com||5|
|Rignell-Hydbom A||Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, SE – 22185 Lund, Sweden||Anna.Rignell-Hydbom@med.lu.se||5|
|Spano M||Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I – 00060 Rome, Italyfirstname.lastname@example.org||6|
|Thulstrup AM||Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, build. 2C, DK – 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark||3|
|Zinchuk A||Problem Laboratory of Human Reproduction, Kharkiv State Medical University, Klochkovskaya Street 156-A, r. 14, 61145 Kharkiv, Ukraine||1|
|Zvyezday V||Problem Laboratory of Human Reproduction, Kharkiv State Medical University, Klochkovskaya Street 156-A, r. 14, 61145 Kharkiv, Ukraineemail@example.com||3|
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