|Keywords||Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Chronic Bronchitis, Pulmonary Emphysema, Tobacco smoke pollution|
|Abstract||Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods: Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results: Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21). The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84). The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion: ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.|
|Full text||Full Text in PDF (277 KB)
|Included Refrences||44 References (List...)|
|Cited by other Articles||0 Citations (List...)|
|Name||Affiliation||Home page||Total pubs|
|Balmes J||Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 0924, San Francisco, CA 94113-0924, USA||1|
|Blanc PD||Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 0924, San Francisco, CA 94113-0924, USA||2|
|Eisner MD||Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 0924, San Francisco, CA 94113-0924, USA||2|
|Katz PP||nstitute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 0920, San Francisco, CA 94113-0920, USA||2|
|Trupin L||Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 0924, San Francisco, CA 94113-0924, USAemail@example.com||2|
|Yelin EH||Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Box 0920, San Francisco, CA 94113-0920, USA||2|
Article is cited by:
References included in article:
|Order of appearence||Full citation||SRCosmos Link|
|1||Annino DM, Homa DM, Akinbami LJ, Ford ES, Redd SC, |
(2002). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease surveillance--United States, 1971-2000. MMWR Surveill Summ, 51(6):1-16.
|2||Halbert RJ, Isonaka S, George D, Iqbal A, |
(2003). Interpreting COPD prevalence estimates: what is the true burden of disease? Chest, 123(5):1684-1692.
|3||Rennard S, Decramer M, Calverley PM, Pride N, Soriano JB, Vermeire PA, Vestbo J, |
(2002). Impact of COPD in North America and Europe in 2000: subjects' perspective of Confronting COPD International Survey. Eur Respir J, 20(4):799-805.
|4||Murray CJ, Lopez AD, |
(1997). Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet, 349(9064):1498-1504.
|5||U.S. (1971). Department of Health EW :The Health Consequences of Smoking: a Report to the Surgeon General. Volume DHEW Publication No. 71-7513. Washington, D.C., U.S.Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service..|
|6||California Environmental Protection Agency. (1997). Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Sacramento California , Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.|
|7||Eisner MD, |
(2002). Environmental tobacco smoke and adult asthma. Clin Chest Med, 23(4):749-761
|8||Jaakkola MS, Piipari R, Jaakkola N, Jaakkola JJ, |
(2003).Environmental tobacco smoke and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. Am J Public Health, 93(12):2055-2060.
|9||Nikula KJ, Green FH, |
(2000). Animal models of chronic bronchitis and their relevance to studies of particle-induced disease. Inhal Toxicol, 12 Suppl 4:123-153
|10||Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJ, |
(2002). Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of adults. Scand J Work Environ Health, 28 Suppl 2:52-70.
|11||Coultas DB, |
(1998). Health effects of passive smoking. 8. Passive smoking and risk of adult asthma and COPD: an update. Thorax, 53(5):381-387.
|12||Trupin L, Earnest G, San-Pedro M, Balmes JR, Eisner MD, Yelin E, Katz PP, |
Blanc PD., (2003). The occupational burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 22(3):462-469.
|13||Kim J, |
(1998). Atlas of Respiratory Disease Mortality, United States: 1982-1993. Cincinnati, OH Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
|14||Sin DD, Stafinski T, Ng YC, Bell NR, Jacobs P, |
(2002). The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on work loss in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 165(5):704-707.
|15||Mannino DM, |
(2002). COPD: epidemiology, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, and disease heterogeneity. Chest, 121(5 Suppl):121S-126S.
|16||Eisner MD, Yelin EH, Trupin L, Blanc PD, |
(2002). The Influence of Chronic Respiratory Conditions on Health Status and Work Disability. Am J Public Health, 92(9):1506-1513.
|17||Cigarette smoking among adults--United States. (2002). 2000 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 51(29):642-645.|
|18||United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital Department of Public Health Medicine :Protocol for the European Respiratory Community Health Survey. London, United Medical and Dental Schools St Thomas' Campus.|
|19||Iribarren C, Friedman GD, Klatsky AL, Eisner MD, |
(1993). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001, 55(10):721-728
|20||Tager IB, Ngo L, Hanrahan JP, |
(1995). Maternal smoking during pregnancy. Effects on lung function during the first 18 months of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 152(3):977-983.
|21||Hanrahan JP, Tager IB, Segal MR, Tosteson TD, Castile RG, Van-Vunakis H, Weiss ST, Speizer FE, |
(1992). The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on early infant lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis, 145(5):1129-1135.
|22||Rothman K, Keller A, |
(1972). The effect of joint exposure to alcohol and tobacco on risk of cancer of the mouth and pharynx. J Chron Dis, 25:711-716.
|23||Cole P, Mac-Mahon B, |
(1971). Attributable risk percent in case control studies. Brit J Prev Soc Med, 25:242-244.
|24||Greenland S, Drescher K, |
(1993). Maximum likelihood estimation of the attributable fraction from logistic models. Biometrics, 49(3):865-872.
|25||Leuenberger P, Schwartz J, Ackermann-Liebrich U, Blaser K, Bolognini G, Bongard JP, Brandli O, Braun P, Bron C, Brutsche M, |
et al., (1994). Passive smoking exposure in adults and chronic respiratory symptoms (SAPALDIA Study). Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults, SAPALDIA Team [see comments]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 150(5 Pt 1):1222-1228.
|26||Dayal HH, Khuder S, Sharrar R, Trieff N, |
(1994). Passive smoking in obstructive respiratory disease in an industrialized urban population. Environ Res, 65(2):161-171.
|27||Robbins AS, Abbey DE, Lebowitz MD, |
(1993). Passive smoking and chronic respiratory disease symptoms in non-smoking adults. Int J Epidemiol, 22(5):809-817.
|28||Berglund DJ, Abbey DE, Lebowitz MD, Knutsen SF, Mcdonnell WF, |
(1999). Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in an elderly nonsmoking population [see comments]. Chest, 115(1):49-59.
|29||Sapigni T, Biavati P, Simoni M, Viegi G, Baldacci S, Carrozzi L, |
Modena ., Pedreschi M., Vellutini M., Paoletti P., (1998). The Po River Delta Respiratory Epidemiological Survey: an analysis of factors related to level of total serum IgE. Eur Respir J, 11(2):278-283.
|30||Oryszczyn MP, Annesi-Maesano I, Charpin D, Paty E, Maccario J, Kauffmann F, |
(2000). Relationships of active and passive smoking to total IgE in adults of the Epidemiological Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness, and Atopy (EGEA). Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 161(4 Pt 1):1241-1246.
|31||Janson C, Chinn S, Jarvis D, Zock JP, Toren K, Burney P, |
(2001). Effect of passive smoking on respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness, lung function, and total serum IgE in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: a cross-sectional study. Lancet, 358(9299):2103-2109.
|32||Eisner MD, Katz PP, Yelin EH, Hammond SK, Blanc PD, |
(2001). Measurement of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adults with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(8):809-814.
|33||Eisner MD, |
(2002). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and pulmonary function among adults in NHANES III: impact on the general population and adults with current asthma. Environ Health Perspect, 110(8):765-770.
|34||Barr RG, Herbstman J, Speizer FE, Camargo CAJ, |
(2002). Validation of self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a cohort study of nurses. Am J Epidemiol, 155(10):965-971.
|35||Straus SE, Mc-Alister FA, Sackett DL, Deeks JJ, |
(2002). Accuracy of history, wheezing, and forced expiratory time in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Gen Intern Med, 17(9):684-688.
|36||Pirkle JL, Flegal KM, Bernert JT, Brody DJ, Etzel RA, |
Maurer KR., (1996). Exposure of the US population to environmental tobacco smoke: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1991 [see comments]. Jama, 275(16):1233-1240.
|37||Delfino RJ, Ernst P, Jaakkola MS, Solomon S, Becklake MR, |
(1993). Questionnaire assessments of recent exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in relation to salivary cotinine. Eur Respir J, 6(8):1104-1108.
|38||Emmons KM, Abrams DB, Marshall R, Marcus BH, Kane M, Novotny TE, Etzel RA, |
(1994). An evaluation of the relationship between self-report and biochemical measures of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Prev Med, 23(1):35-39.
|39||Coultas DB, Peake G, Samet JM, |
(1989). Questionnaire assessment of lifetime and recent exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Am J Epidemiol, 130(2):338-347.
|40||Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJ, |
(1997). Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Eur Respir J, 10(10):2384-2397.
|41||Benowitz NL, |
(1999). Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Environ Health Perspect, 107 Suppl 2:349-355.
|42||Hammond SK, Leaderer BP, |
(1987). A diffusion monitor to measure exposure to passive smoking. Environmental Science Technology, 21:494-497.
|43||Verbrugge LM, Patrick DL, |
(1995).Seven chronic conditions: their impact on US adults' activity levels and use of medical services. Am J Public Health, 85(2):173-182.
|44||Balmes J, Becklake M, Blanc P, Henneberger P, Kreiss K, Mapp C, Milton D, Schwartz D, Toren K, Viegi G, |
(2003). American Thoracic Society Statement: Occupational contribution to the burden of airway disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 167(5):787-797.